A Thingum from Roger Hayward

Pastel drawing of a compound of Molybdenum Dichloride. Drawing by Roger Hayward, 1964.

Pastel drawing of a compound of Molybdenum Dichloride. Drawing by Roger Hayward, 1964.

Mother was an artist’s daughter. I was expected to draw just as I was expected to eat or talk or anything else, and I wasn’t praised for the results.

I decided on architecture because I hoped that it would provide a balanced diet of aesthetics and mechanico-science. The diet is short on science, and so my hobbies in later years have tended towards science.

During this period (‘38-‘39) I had R.M. Langer of Cal Tech tutor me in modern atomic theory. I gave him a painting for his effort.

– Roger Hayward, letter to “Doc” C.L. Stong, editor of Scientific American and Amateur Scientist.  December 22, 1950.

Roger Hayward, who illustrated many of Linus Pauling’s publications and enjoyed a fruitful collaboration with many Caltech scientists, liked to refer to “thingums” in various discussions.  The Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections is the future home of the Roger Hayward Papers. In celebration of this event, over the coming months we will be posting a variety of short “thingums” in an effort to bring forth the unique talents of this man who excelled as an artist, architect, engineer and scientist.

Much more on Roger Hayward is available here.


Now Available: “Face Furniture,” by Roger and Elizabeth Hayward

The Haywards were not aiming to improve people’s physical vision in the real world.  Their endeavor was intended as fun stuff, exploring possibilities for facial adornment appropriate to a type of individual.  This eyewear was designed with the wearer in his/her right mind, or out of it, as the case may be.
– Jim and Miriam Kramer

Just in time for the holidays, we are pleased to announce the availability of “Face Furniture,” a book of drawings and poems created by Roger and Elizabeth Hayward.

As readers of this blog know, Roger Hayward was Linus Pauling’s longtime illustrator.  The two collaborated on several major projects, most notably 1964’s The Architecture of Molecules, which featured Hayward’s stunning pastel depictions of complex molecular substances, including this amazing drawing of molybdenum dichloride.

Roger Hayward was a true renaissance man who was comfortable operating in many wildly-disparate environments.  While his work with Linus Pauling required a keen understanding of complicated scientific processes, the forty-one drawings and verses in “Face Furniture” reveal a decidedly more lighthearted side to his and his wife’s abilities.  In their introduction to the book, editors Jim and Miriam Kramer note that Roger

…and his wife, Betty, created these drawings and imaginative verses in their hobbery in Pasadena, California while discussing topics of the time.  They developed this collection for the ‘fun of it.’  After some discussion, Roger would draw an imaginary person, often with a bit of satire, and Betty would compose a verse.  Roger would often get into the act and add his limerick also.

“Face Furniture” is available for purchase online at itascabooks.com or by check or money order ($15.95) from:

Tanager Scientific, 3372 Creekview Crescent, Minnetonka, MN 55304-3670

Our past blog posts on Roger Hayward, including a four-part biographical series, are available here.

Thinking Structurally: The Roots of Pauling’s Hemoglobin Work

Pastel drawing of Hemoglobin at 20 angstroms, 1964. Drawing by Roger Hayward.

Pastel drawing of Hemoglobin at 20 angstroms, 1964. Drawing by Roger Hayward.

Linus Pauling is one of that select group of individuals whose lives have made a discernible impact on the contemporary world. His contributions to molecular chemistry have been substantial and fully deserving of the recognition that he received in the form of a Nobel Prize in chemistry….Pauling continued to do productive scientific work throughout his lifetime, making a second outstanding contribution in his discovery of the molecular processes involved in sickle-cell anemia. This discovery, if made by anyone who was not already the only person to receive two unshared Nobel Prizes, might well have merited a third prize in medicine.
– Ted Goertzel. “Linus Pauling: The Scientist as Crusader.” Antioch Review, 38 (1980): 371-382. 1980.

Two of Linus Pauling’s greatest scientific discoveries, his work on the nature of the chemical bond and the discovery of molecular disease, both hinged on his distinctly structural approach to scientific problems.

Having written a doctoral dissertation on the determination of the molecular structure of inorganic compounds in crystalline state, Pauling chose hemoglobin as an object of study in part because he knew that it was hemoglobin’s changing structure that allowed it to carry oxygen to the tissues of the body. While Pauling like to joke that he chose to work on blood because it was easy to obtain, the intellectual challenge of explaining the sigmoid curve of oxygen saturation in hemoglobin profoundly sparked Pauling’s scientific interest.

Later, upon learning about the disease sickle-cell anemia, Pauling came to recognize that the potentially molecular and structural basis of the disease could facilitate a deeper investigation into structural studies of the molecule. Hemoglobin, in part because of its association with the bonding and transport of iron atoms, demonstrated extremely changeable magnetic charges and suggested, even from a preliminary acquaintance, the importance of structural changes in chemical function.

By 1934, when Pauling suggested hemoglobin as the organic molecule of choice for his particular research program, he had already laid out a general plan of research that relied heavily on investigations into the structural and electrically-charged nature of organic molecules. In May of 1935, Pauling wrote in his research notebook

At this time I have analyzed the oxygen equilibrium data to make plausible the idea that in hemoglobin the four hemes are arranged at the corners of a square on one side of the globin, being interconnected along the edges of the square, and that in the hemochromogens the hemes are independent of one another; and I have outlined a general program of investigation, consisting mainly of magnetic studies and x-ray studies (anomalous dispersion, radial distribution about iron atoms).

In a way, Pauling had always been thinking structurally about the nature of the hemoglobin molecule, its ability to bind oxygen molecules and, later, its particular pathology in the case of sickle-cell anemia.

In 1937, Pauling delivered an inaugural lecture for the Sigma Xi society of Corvallis, in which he asserted both the importance and the relatively-recent arrival of structural chemistry as a discipline. For Pauling structural chemistry involved “the determination of the structures of molecules – the exact location of the atoms in space relative to one another – and the interpretation of the chemical and physical properties of substances in terms of the structure of their molecules.”

This lecture, entitled “Hemoglobin and Magnetism,” addressed the “new branch of chemistry, modern structural chemistry” through a discussion of some of Pauling’s most recent work on hemoglobin’s magnetic properties.

“It’s in the Blood!” A Revised, METS-based Website

Pastel drawing of a hemoglobin molecule by Roger Hayward, 1964.

Pastel drawing of a hemoglobin molecule by Roger Hayward, 1964.

“It [hemoglobin] is a good substance from the standpoint of a chemist, because of its availability. All you need to do is to catch somebody, introduce a hypodermic needle and draw out a sample of blood. A standard victim of this practice, weighing perhaps 120 pounds (it’s easier to catch them small!) contains in the red corpuscles in his blood one and two-tenths pounds of hemoglobin.”
– Linus Pauling, 1966.

Some reasonably big news to share today. As announced here, we have launched a revised and expanded version of our 2005 release “It’s in the Blood!  A Documentary History of Linus Pauling, Hemoglobin and Sickle Cell Anemia.”

Similar to the revised version of our “Nature of the Chemical Bond” documentary history website, which was launched this past February, the “second edition” of “It’s in the Blood!” contains a ton more content: the final tally runs to 53 new letters, 458 pages of added manuscripts and papers, 18 new pictures and 11 new audio and video clips.  The metadata for all of the site’s content is drastically improved as well — a fact that is most immediately evident on the various Key Participants pages, which have been transformed from rather spartan affairs to content-rich resources like this page devoted to Harvey Itano.

Aside from the self-evident benefits of adding more content to our pages, revising the older documentary histories has also prompted our digitization work more in the direction of a uniform METS-based platform.  We’ll talk a lot more about them at a later time, but for now it’s sufficient to define METS records as all-in-one containers for digital objects.

We use METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard) and MODS (Metadata Object Description Schema – both are flavors of XML) not only to describe a scanned item in a qualitative sense, but also to define how the item displays on a page.

For example, the METS record that “powers” the hemoglobin molecule above includes an internal i.d., the date and creator of the record, the image caption and it’s copyright data, the creator of the image (Roger Hayward) and any individuals or organizations associated with it. (Linus Pauling, in this case, since the drawing was published in Pauling and Hayward’s The Architecture of Molecules.)  The record also stores the date of the item’s creation (1964), and the genre type of the original document. (We use the Library of Congress’ Basic Genre Terms for Cultural Heritage Materials as our genre authority.  The Hayward item is defined by BGTCHM as an “illustration.”)

The METS record also defines certain display characteristics that are then interpreted by the XSL stylesheets that build our HTML pages.  Again using our hemoglobin molecule as an example, the METS record which defines the object’s output declares that it can be displayed at one of four different sizes.  The 150-pixel width display is used for all images inserted as Narrative sidebar images (Hemoglobin is on this page), as well as all images aggregated onto a given All Documents and Media index page. (Hemoglobin is about 3/4 of the way down the Pictures and Illustrations index.)  A 400-pixel width version will be used in a revised version of our “Linus Pauling Day-by-Day” project, which we hope to launch later this year.  The 600-pixel width “reference images” display like this, and the 900-pixel width big kahunas look like this.

METS records take a while to create, but the payoff is well worth the effort.  The flexibility that METS provides both within and across projects is of huge importance to us — when building really big websites and/or multiple websites with subject matter that tends to overlap, (the documentary histories, the Day-by-Day calendar and the Pauling Student Learning Curriculum, e.g.) it is way more efficient to be able to describe an object once but use it again and again.

Right now, “Linus Pauling and the Race for DNA” is the last of our documentary history sites still requiring METS attentions.  Once it’s revised, we’ll be able to start thinking concretely about providing different types of portal views and search tools for our growing METS cache (well over 3,000 records currently), an eventuality that promises a whole new range of possibilities for our entire digitization workflow.  But that’s a different topic for a different day…

Contents of The Pauling Catalogue

A brief overview of the six volumes that comprise The Pauling Catalogue

A brief overview of the six volumes that comprise The Pauling Catalogue

[Part 3 of 9]
The Pauling Catalogue is a mammoth publication — six volumes, more than 1,700 pages and over 1,200 illustrations, the entirety of which is held in a slipcase and weighs in at over twenty pounds per set.  The six volumes are effectively a detailed outline of the Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers, a 4,400 linear foot collection that has been arranged and described using a schema of seventeen disparate intellectual series.  These seventeen series — the “meat” of The Pauling Catalogue — are detailed below the jump.

The contents of The Pauling Catalogue

Roger Hayward and Linus Pauling


Pastel drawing of a Tantalum Halide cluster ion. 1964.

[Part 4 of 4. Questions about Roger Hayward may be directed to the authors of this text — Dr. J.R. Kramer, Miriam Kramer and John Benjamin — at jkramer2[at]cogeco.ca]

Linus Pauling may have learned about Roger Hayward and his “drafting” talent in the early 1930s. Hayward had designed several new architectural structures in the LA area (the Doheny Library and the Los Angeles Stock Exchange, for example) many of which had been prominently displayed in the local papers.

With the onset of the Depression, Hayward was looking for work. At the same time, Pauling was going “great guns” in determining new molecular structures, and was likewise building models for use in classes at Caltech. Hayward possessed the ability to visualize these structures in three dimensions, to illustrate these structures in a 3-D perspective and to make models of the structures.

Initially Pauling may have viewed Roger only as a “draftsman”, albeit a particularly talented one. Despite their proximity, Pauling and Hayward communicated mostly by letter. One reason for this was that Pauling was always busy or traveling, thus making face-to-face meetings difficult to arrange. Hayward, on occasion, would go to Caltech to pick up sketches or notes, but otherwise the collaborators did not often meet in person.

Fundamentally, the two men were consumed with rather different lifestyles: Pauling was usually in a rush and often did not have enough time to follow all of his pursuits. On the other hand, Hayward, at least upon his departure from the Lunden partnership, had time to do as he wished, and to ponder the many diverse subjects that interested him.

An Evolving Relationship

A series of letters changed the somewhat distant collaborative relationship from that of draftsman-scientist to, in Pauling’s estimation, that scientist-scientist. After a series of many requests for Hayward’s time, on July 19, 1951 Pauling wrote:

“Could you, during the next few days, make some drawings? We need to get a paper off for publication immediately, because I have learned that someone else (a Swede) is doing some closely similar work, and I think that we might as well publish our results obtained so far….I would like to have drawings made of the structure Na2Cd11 closely similar to what you have already made for me in pastel. There is, however, one difference, which I shall describe below — this involves an interchange of the six larger atoms and six of the smaller atoms…”

On July 27 Hayward replied:

“I believe that a review of the enclosed sketch for the revised figure E discloses that the octahedron cannot be placed where required if the radii and spacings are consistent with my interpretation of your directions. Furthermore if all the triacontahedra are shown completely surrounding the octahedron, the figure will be unintelligible….I will reiterate that I do these figures for the pleasure involved. Such a catalogue of criticisms of drawings which you requested me to do in a hurry is not pleasant.”

Pauling responded on August 2:

“I return the sketches on the Na2Cd11 structure with my apology. I have just discovered, a couple of days ago while going over calculations with Dr. Ewing, that I had placed the large atoms in the wrong positions in the rhomb….I think that this will take care of the steric difficulty that you have pointed out….”

This exchange changed Pauling’s attitude towards Hayward in that he now had complete confidence in Roger’s abilities properly illustrate molecules and, indeed, to act as a check on Pauling’s calculations. Furthermore, Pauling considered Hayward to be a scientific colleague, as evidenced by the publication of “The Structure of Protein Molecules,” a 1954 Scientific American paper in which, for the first time, Hayward is included as a co-author.

The Pauling-Hayward relationship further evolved when a German magazine raised Pauling’s ire by copying the Scientific American article without permission, altered its illustrations and deleting Hayward as a co-author. The above exchange is also suggestive of the difference in the personalities of the two men. Pauling was a highly-driven person working in the competitive field of molecular structure determination. Hayward, on the other hand, was motivated primarily by his passion for artistic merit and out of curiosity.

Roger, of course, required that his art be correct, especially in matters technical. But for Roger a large part of the enjoyment that he derived from his work emanated out of the association and discussions that the work afforded with intellects such as Linus Pauling. Roger, in fact, did not even necessarily expect monetary compensation for his labor. For example, in a letter to Pauling, dated January 9, 1953, Hayward writes:

“Enclosed herewith is the Institute’s check no. 93369 which I prefer not to accept…. [and] I wish my designation as Research Assistant of the Chemistry department to be discontinued at the earliest possible moment. I shall call myself a friend of the Chemistry Department and will enjoy continuing to assist you and the department in an advisory capacity which will include the making of drawings when the occasions arise.”

The Architecture of Molecules

Perhaps the climax of the Pauling-Hayward relationship — and, indeed, a happy one — was the creation of their best-seller, The Architecture of Molecules, published in 1964.

The development of this book, initially titled Molecular Architecture, can be credited to the visions of William Freeman, Stan Schaefer, Harry Marks, Linus Pauling and Roger Hayward. By 1964, Roger had completed a series of illustrations for Pauling’s College Chemistry and the Pauling-Hayward team had also worked well together on a number of professional papers. The time seemed right to collate all of this information into an artistic/scientific book written for the general public.

On March 12, Hayward became the last party to sign the publishing agreement. (It may have been a bit fortuitous that on March 26, Scientific American and W.H. Freeman announced the merger of their operations.) On March 31, Pauling, Hayward and Harry Marks met at Roger’s home to conceptualize the design and workflow for the book. As Roger noted in a letter to Stanley Schaefer, dated March 31, 1964, “Linus Pauling plans to write from the illustrations and so it is my move and I shall have to restrain a little lest I over-do.”


Pastel drawing of Camphor. 1964.



Pastel drawing of Ethylene. 1964.



Pastel drawing of Hexamethylenetertramine. 1964.

The bulk of the communications regarding this project, exchanged mostly between Harry Mark and Roger Hayward, reveal an air of excitement and fun. Roger planned to draw with pastels, and described in great detail the paper, textures, layouts and, most importantly, colors that he hoped to feature. A four-color press was a must for this publication, as the drawings would not include a white margin, thus lending more depth to the molecular structures. Use of pastels also afforded a certain amount of needed haziness to the diagrams, as the precise bonding of atoms was not entirely clear. (In this Roger made great use of the tutorials in atomic physics he had previously received from R.M.Langer).

The myriad details that Roger forwards include specific colors to be used and their Munsell color notations. Lighting effects for each diagram were discussed at length between Roger and Harry Mark. When a diagram was complete, Pauling would review it, approve it, and then write an accompanying text. The communications regarding production end with a September 21, 1964 letter in Pauling confirms the change in title of the book to The Architecture of Molecules and notes his concern with publication delays, hoping for Christmas sales and revenue.


Annotated pencil sketch of the structure of ice. 1964.



Pastel drawing of Methane. 1964.



Pastel drawing of Sodium Chloride. 1964.

A few notes regarding the book: On January 19, 1965, Roger Hayward wrote to Harry Marks requesting return of the color slides of the plates. To date these slides have not been found. The book itself received high praise as a work of art. The emphasis in every review is on the drawings, perhaps because this was among the first publications where art and science are so thoroughly blended. The book has been translated into Spanish, German and Japanese among other languages.

This was also the last major joint publication between Linus Pauling and Roger Hayward. The collaborators did, however, remain professional friends as suggested by the text of Pauling’s lecture at Berkeley in 1976, in which he refers to Roger Hayward as a scientist, and a 1976 letter from Hayward to his cousin Marjorie Widdop, in which Roger states that he and Pauling have been friends and have worked together for over 40 years.


Greeting to Linus Pauling on his 75th Birthday

A Final Word

Roger worked “for the fun of it”. He was a curious individual and was satisfied when he discovered or exhibited something new. In this regard he was a true dilettante, but a brilliant one. To him art and science were both means for reaching reality, a perspective which he conveys in an October 1941 letter to Sam Lunden:

“As with all narratives, it should be possible to smoke out a moral or two. These must have to be in the form of deductions from my own experience. It has been stated that architecture is a gentleman’s profession, and I presume that a gentleman is one who is able to subsist without visible means of support. Certainly during the depression, this statement was true. Since I have no invisible supporting mechanism, I solved the problem of developing a good healthy, time-consuming, interest-absorbing hobby. I now find to my pleasure that my hobby can not only feed itself, but me as well.”

For more on Roger Hayward please see his Key Participants page on the website Linus Pauling and the Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History, or click here.

Roger Hayward (1899-1979): The Western Years, Part 2

[This is the third installment of the PaulingBlog’s four part biographical series on Roger Hayward. The text that follows was compiled by Dr. J.R. Kramer, Miriam Kramer and John Benjamin, who may be reached at jkramer2[at]cogeco.ca]

Roger Hayward, 1960s.

Roger Hayward, 1960s.


Architecture took off after the war, and in 1949 Roger Hayward became a partner in the firm Lunden, Hayward and O’Connor. This partnership undertook many large jobs in the greater Los Angeles area, including the Hyperion treatment plant, many schools, an addition to Good Samaritan Hospital (which ultimately included a patent for a baby-tending stand), the Los Angeles City Health Building and the Temple Israel of Hollywood. Roger gave particular thought and energy to the design of the front door of the temple.

The firm broke up in 1957, perhaps due to Roger’s influence: he did not like the commute to downtown LA, greatly preferring instead to work in the hobbery in Pasadena and to spend more time on artistic projects. In addition his asthma became chronic and required a clean air environment as well as a daily shot of ACTH. As a result of his departure from the architecture firm, Roger drew more; exhibited in various locales, including the Hatfield Galleries; and gave talks on art, with a particular emphasis on color and color perception in illustrations. He also became involved in the Ebell Art Salon in LA and was active in, and for a term was President of, the Pasadena Art Association.

Roger’s painting was now almost entirely in watercolor, though later he began to favor pastels and crayons. He became enchanted with the American West and he, Betty and their little schnauzer “Gnawbert” (perhaps named after Norbert Weiner at MIT?) would partake in art/fun trips to the desert most every year. Roger mainly painted at home in the hobbery, maintaining a mental vision of what he saw on these trips.

A small sampling of his art titles while out West are:

  • The Savage Office, Virginia City, NV
  • Eighteen Squared and Overlapped
  • Fourth Ward School, Virginia City, NV
  • Eleven by Eleven Rectangles
  • Elsinor Hotel
  • Eleven by Eleven Rectangles and Hexagons
  • Rusty Stove
  • Renascence – Random in Four Parameters
  • Red Wheeled Buggy
  • Model Ship- drawing
  • Banda Point
  • Slippers- drawing
  • Morro Rock
  • Cannibal- drawing
  • San Gorgonia Pass
  • Missionary- drawing
  • Trophies
  • Black Pottery and Navajo Squares- drawing
  • Old Houses, Virginia City
  • Black Pottery and Navajo Rugs- drawing
  • Jeweler’s Lathe
  • Glass, Apples and Oranges- drawing
  • Pier and Dinghy
  • Death Valley Dunes
  • Jetsam
  • Split Rock
  • House on Seventeenth Mile Drive
  • Old Ore Cart
  • Soquel Meadow
  • La Purissima Mission
  • Torrey Pines Beach
  • Rooming House, Virginia City
  • Eighteen Squared
  • Forbidden Canyon


In 1956, Roger was hired as a consultant to Disney Productions for purposes of providing “corrections” to their moon model. The Disney model had been constructed from casts of the Griffith and Adler models, and in the process the Disney materials had been altered.

Fig. 16. Watercolor of a deserted ranch (Kramer collection).

Figure 16. Watercolor of a deserted ranch (Kramer collection).

In 1958, Roger signed a ten year contract — with an annual retainer and add-on commissions — to illustrate solely for W.H. Freeman Publishers.This contract afforded Roger a great deal of freedom and financial stability. Numerous jobs arose out of this agreement, ranging from mineralogy to organic chemistry to mechanics and electronics books.Importantly, the Freeman contract led to the well-received Pauling and Hayward publication, The Architecture of Molecules (see Installment Four of this series).

Despite the security that the Freeman deal provided, the arrangement eventually fizzled as Roger tired of the tedium of “drafting,” and often found himself disagreeing with authors who wanted “clean” diagrams.Roger wanted to “illustrate.”In addition, Roger’s asthma and weakening eyesight made “drafting” more difficult.He therefore reverted to a looser retainer agreement with Freeman, which allowed him to pursue opportunities outside of the publishing house.

Roger became involved in some of the Caltech campus construction in the 1950s and 1960s.He served as architect and critic for the Gordon Alles Biology Building, the Sloan Laboratory Mathematics and Physics Building, the Main Library and the Norman Bridge Lecture Hall.He also made drawings of various atoms and of a telescope, though he did not accept payment for the art work, stating that“I would like to regard these sketches as compensation for my membership in The Athenaeum [faculty club] which I realize is quite irregular.”

Roger took on many innovative challenges throughout his multi-faceted career, work whichresulted in his receipt of ten patents for which he “had fun in doing but never earned a nickel.” These patents are as follows:

Patent Number Date Description
2,200,646 May 14, 1940 Transparent Projection Screen (with J.D. Strong)
2,399,924 May 7, 1946 (filed Feb 17, 1945) Devices for grinding and polishing surfaces
2,403,659 July 9, 1946 (filed May 2, 1945) Apparatus for surface generation
2,403,660 July 9, 1946 (filed May 29, 1945) Optical system for cameras
2,430,637 Nov 11, 1947 (filed Dec 8, 1944) Means and a method for testing optical surfaces
2,514,492 July 11, 1950 (filed Jan 3, 1946) Bubble level with conical lens (see Sci. Am., Nov 1956)
2,625,853 Jan 20, 1953 (filed Feb 3, 1947) Panoramic telescope device
2,625,854 Jan 20, 1953 (filed Dec 2, 1947) Panoramic binocular telescope
2,752,614 July 3, 1956 (filed July 10, 1953) Bassinet attachment (with O’Connor and Lunden)
3,116,720 Jan. 7, 1964 (filed Nov 3, 1960) Pens (with William Bradley Lewis, Idaho Falls, ID)

Roger was always interested in the meaning and interpretation of art, vision, and especially color. As his vision started to fail, he resigned from professional work and started to tinker. One interest was the development of drawings and articles for the Worm Runners Digest, for which Roger authored many publications. The first and perhaps best-known is 1968’s “Blivets-Research and Development” (vol X, no 2) in which he constructs a number of pleasing but impossible diagrams. (Fig. 6 of this issue has been reproduced in a number of other publications. ) “Blivets — the Makings” (Vol XII, no 2, 1970-1971) was probably written in response to the large correspondence he received concerning the construction of these “impossible” figures. One fun contribution was “Cupidons — The Survival of the Flittest” (Vol X1, no 2, 1969). A more serious submission was entitled “The Jigsaw Puzzle and the Inventive Mind” (vol X11, no 1 1969), an essay on memory, imagination and inventiveness. Fun again came in the July 1971 issue (vol XIII, no 1), “Flower Bed Bugs,””Livits” in the 1971 (Vol XIII, no 2) issue, and “Digititums” in the vol XIX, no 2 issue of 1977.

Color perception and meaning were an area of intense study by Roger. He had an artist’s basic sense of color, but was also interested in how an individual considers color, especially with respect to black-and-white. One psychological study that he proposed focused on the spinning of a circular wheel with black-and-white markings on a phonograph table and subsequent observations on the development of color. Roger studied the eye’s perception of color and led many discussions with Caltech academics and art groups. These studies were important in determining the color palette in The Architecture of Molecules. Roger also worked on stereo effects (J Opt Soc Amer. vol 56, 255-256) derived from planar figures, enhancing techniques now commonly used to show stereo views of molecules.

The 1970s saw a marked decrease in Roger’s ability to continue to draw. His eyesight worsened, and in 1974 he was compelled to give up his work on the Amateur Scientist column. He obtained a large orator style typewriter to send letters, and often Betty would have to retype them. One small token of good-fortune was his movement from watercolor drawings to pastels and crayons in the 1950s, which allowed him to continue to sketch through the mid-1970s. His common pastel choice was silver and white on a black background, or vice versa.

In 1973, Roger and Betty moved to Merced, California, so as to enlist the support of Betty’s half-sister. Roger was nearly blind and was limited to mostly drawing in black and white, while Betty continued to design original patterns and to weave. Since Roger’s eyesight was very poor, Betty spent a great deal of time reading out loud and typing his letters. In 1975, he was hospitalized for an extensive period of time, and he returned home quite weakened. He died at home in 1979.

For more on Roger Hayward, click here.