It is with great pleasure that we announce the release of a revised and expanded version of the website Linus Pauling: Honors, Awards and Medals. This new iteration of the site includes well over 600 images of nearly all of the 460 awards that Pauling received over the course of his 70+ years in science. (as well as the nine awards that he was given after he died)
Indeed, Pauling was a well-decorated individual, the recipient of 47 honorary doctorates and just about every important award that a scientist can get. He started early: in 1931 he was the first winner of the A. C. Langmuir Prize, given by the American Chemical Society to the best young chemist in the nation. Two years later he was the youngest person, at the time, to be inducted into the National Academy of Sciences.
The volume of awards that he received was so great that, on the surface, some appear to contradict others. For example, he received the Presidential Medal for Merit in 1948 for the scientific work (including new rocket propellants and explosives) that he conducted on behalf of the Allied effort during World War II. Thirteen years later, in 1961, he was named Humanist of the Year by the American Humanist Association.
He also received honors from organizations around the world: the Humphry Davy Medal from the Royal Society in 1947, the Amedeo Avogadro Medal from the Italian National Academy in 1956, the Lomonosov Medal from the Soviet Academy in 1978. And he graciously accepted decorations from slightly lower profile organizations as well, including (our favorite) an honorary black belt from the All Japan Karate-Do Federations in 1980.
The Pauling Awards site was originally released in 2004 as a CONTENTdm collection. In the years that followed, the talented student staff of the Special Collections & Archives Research Center photographed many more items that did not make it onto the 2004 release and also rephotographed artifacts that weren’t captured in exceptional quality the first time around.
Since 2004 many of our web projects have also moved to a METS and MODS based metadata platform, so the desire to add the new and improved image content to the Awards site dovetailed nicely with the desire to describe increasing percentages of our content in METS records. (We talked a lot about METS and MODS in this series of posts from 2008 and 2009)
One exciting new technical innovation developed for the Pauling Awards revamp was the automated batch generation of METS records using the XSL scripting language. In the past, all of our METS records have been created by hand. But because the Awards series in the Pauling finding aid is described on the item level, it was possible to develop scripts that would pull the item-level data out of the XML files in which the series has been encoded and create METS records batch generated by machines. This batch of automated records did require a small amount of clean-up by our resident humans, but the process was hugely time efficient relative to creating each record by hand. Because multiple components of the Pauling finding aid (like the photographs) are described on the item level, a batch process similar to what was developed for the Awards site may come into use again for future digital collections.
The interface for the 2011 version of the Pauling Awards site is also hugely improved over the 2004 version. As with all of the METS-based websites that we have released over the years, the Awards site was designed using XSL and CSS, a process that allows for maximum flexibility. As a result, users are now able to navigate the digital collection much more easily than was previously the case. The item level metadata is better now too, allowing for improved alternative navigation, such as this subject view.
For more on the Pauling Awards site, see this press release, which, among other things, discusses some of the site’s new navigation features in greater depth.